Title: Standard for the Spatio-Temporal Synchronization of a Synthetic Aperture of Distributed Sensors
Scope: This standard describes spatio-temporal synchronization techniques that support distributed sensors used in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, cellular networks, smart factories, geolocation, power beaming, and channel sounding applications, from frequencies of 1GHz in the microwave band to 110GHz in the millimeter-wave band. This standard details fundamental hardware requirements necessary for the real-time spatio-temporal synchronization of distributed sensors that collectively form a synthetic aperture. The standard relates hardware specifications to achievable performance limits. Computational approaches defined by the standard jointly estimate the position, orientation, and clock parameters of distributed sensors. These estimates allow temporal and spatial coherence to be established between sensors with separate clocks and thereby create a single jointly coherent aperture. Coherence and geometric information between the distributed sensors can also provide accurate geopositioning capabilities. The standard further describes the typical performance losses caused by imperfect synchronization accuracy.